UK University Rankings – A Comparison

Which is the best ranked university in the UK? How are universities performing? There is no official government ranking of universities in the UK. However, there are some newspaper rankings published every year by the Times Newspaper, The Telegraph,The BBC’s Student Guide, The Independent University Guide and The Guardian.

Oxford is ranked as the Number 1 University by The Independent and Guardian, outperformed Cambridge in 2008. Oxford tops the Guardian league table, followed by Cambridge, London School of Economics, Warwick, St Andrews, Imperial, University College London, the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and Edinburgh.

There are several university guides in the UK which rank all universities in order of merit, but based on different criteria. Guardian focuses on the quality of teaching and what students themselves think. The Independent Good University Guide (now The Complete University Guide) uses nine measures of quality – student satisfaction, research assessment, entry standards, student/staff ratio, library/computing spend, facilities spend, degree classifications, graduate prospects, and completion rates. All universities are assessed in these nine quality factors. It is a highly regarded university guide; students often make a reference to the ranking tables when choosing a university. There are 59 subject tables which rank the universities within individual subjects.

However, a university which ranked highly in The Times may appear in a poor position in other university guides such as the Sunday Times or the Guardian. In 2008, there are some big differences in ranking positions among the two famous university guides (Guardian and The Independent), such as the follows:

(1) University of Dundee is ranked 17 in the Guardian (A Top 20 University), but it is ranked 52 in The Independent, even not in the Top 50!

(2) University of Bristol is ranked 31 in the Guardian (outside Top30), but it is highly ranked in The Independent, at 16.

(3) Anglia Ruskin University is ranked 109 in The Independent, but it is in a higher position of 71, in the Guardian league table.

(4) Thames Valley University is ranked 85 in the Guardian, and 110 in The Independent.

(5) University of Durham is doing extremely well in The Independent, ranked at 6th position, but it is ranked 16 in the Guardian (outside Top 15).

(6) University of Abertay Dundee is ranked 68 in The Independent, but it is outside Top 100 in the Guardian, at 105.

Which ranking guide is the best? It really depends on a number of factors.

Paralegals – A New Frontier in the Legal Industry

In the legal industry today, more and more career opportunities are becoming available to paralegals all over the country. Paralegals are individuals who specialize in a wide range of tasks; they can be providers of “first aid” to clients who are in need of legal advice, or they can gather substantial facts and information for lawyers to study. Paralegals are in demand nowadays, especially if a task involves translating legal procedures into layman’s terms.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, paralegals can earn an average of $43,040 each year, including bonuses, life insurance, leave benefits and reimbursement for continuing legal education. Scholarships are likewise provided to those who wish to study paralegal courses. Other financial aid packages meanwhile are made to support aspiring paralegals with their other needs.

The job of a paralegal used to be restricted within the confines of the legal office. But these days paralegals are needed almost everywhere, since they are also equipped with adequate legal knowledge. Paralegals can assist the media in tackling certain legal issues, provide immediate legal aid to people who need to understand their rights and privileges given a particular situation, or document some legal cases that could be of public interest.

Most of all, paralegal work is a good training ground for those who want to pursue a law degree. Why not take on paralegal work first before becoming a lawyer? This job will not just assist you in your studies; it can also offer you wider opportunities to help you boost your career.

Select the Right NOx Control Technology

Most major industrialized urban areas in the U.S. are unable to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone. Atmospheric studies have shown that ozone formation is the result of a complex set of chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Those studies indicate that many urban areas with VOC/NOx ratios greater tan 15:1 can reduce ambient ozone levels only by reducing NOx emissions. Many states, therefore, are implementing NOx control regulations for combustion devices in order to achieve compliance with the NAAQS ozone standard.

This article discusses the characterization of NOx emissions from industrial combustion devices. It then provides guidance on how to evaluate the applicable NOx control technologies and select an appropriate control method.

Characterizing Emissions

Most industrial combustion devices have not been tested to establish their baseline NOx emission levels. Rather, the NOx emissions from these units have been simply estimated using various factors. In light of recent regulations, however, it is mandatory that the NOx emissions from affected units now be known with certainty. This will establish each unit’s present compliance status and allow definition of fee applicable control technologies for those units that will require modification to achieve compliance.

It is, therefore, important to test each combustion device to verify its NOx emissions characteristics. The testing process should be streamlined to provide timely and necessary information for making decisions regarding the applicability of NOx control technologies.

The basic approach is to select one device from a class of units (that is, of same design and size) for characterization testing (NOx, CO2, and 02). Testing is conducted at three load points that represent the normal operating range of the unit, with excess oxygen variation testing conducted at each load point. Figure 1 illustrates the typical characterization test results. The remaining units in the class are tested at only one load point, at or near full load.

The operational data obtained during testing, in conjunction with the NOx and CO data, are used to define the compliance status of each unit, as well as the applicable NOx control technologies for those devices that must be modified. In most instances, this approach will allow multiple units to be tested in one day and provide the necessary operational data the engineer needs to properly evaluate the potential NOx control technologies.

Fundamental Concepts

Reasonably available control technology (RACT) standards for NOx emissions are defined in terms of an emission limit, such as 0.2 lb NOx/MMBtu, rather than mandating Specific NOx control technologies. Depending on the fuel fired and the design of the combustion device, a myriad of control technologies may be viable options. Before selecting RACT for a particular combustion device, it is necessary to understand how NOx emissions are formed so that the appropriate control strategy may be formulated.

NOx emissions formed during the combustion process are a function of the fuel composition, the operating mode, and the basic design of the boiler and combustion equipment. Each of these parameters can play a significant role in the final level of NOx emissions.

NOx formation is attributed to three distinct mechanisms:

1. Thermal NOx Formation;

2. Prompt (i.e.. rapidly forming) NO formation; and

3. Fuel NOx formation.

Each of these mechanisms is driven by three basic parameters – temperature of combustion, time above threshold temperatures in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, and turbulence during initial combustion.

Thermal NOx formation in gas-, oil-. and coal-fired devices results from thermal fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in the combustion air. Early investigations of NOx formation were based upon kinetic analyses for gaseous fuel combustion. These analyses by Zeldovich yielded an Arrhenius-type equation showing the relative importance of time, temperature, and oxygen and nitrogen concentrations on NOx formation in a pre-mixed flame (that is, the reactants are thoroughly mixed before combustion).

While thermal NOx formation in combustion devices cannot actually be determined using the Zeldovich relationship, it does illustrate the importance of the major factors that Influence thermal NOx formation, and that NOx formation increases exponentially with combustion temperatures above 2.800°F.

Experimentally measured NOx formation rates near the flame zone are higher than those predicted by the Zeldovich relationship. This rapidly forming NO is referred to as prompt NO. The discrepancy between the predicted and measured thermal NOx values is attributed to the simplifying assumptions used in the derivation of the Zeldovich equation, such as the equilibrium assumption that O = ½ 02. Near the hydrocarbon-air flame zone, the concentration of the formed radicals, such as O and OH, can exceed the equilibrium values, which enhances the rate of NOx formation. However, the importance of prompt NO in NOx emissions is negligible in comparison to thermal and fuel NOx.

When nitrogen is introduced with the fuel, completely different characteristics are observed. The NOx formed from the reaction of the fuel nitrogen with oxygen is termed fuel NOx. The most common form of fuel nitrogen is organically bound nitrogen present in liquid or solid fuels where individual nitrogen atoms are bonded to carbon or other atoms. These bonds break more easily than the diatomic N2 bonds so that fuel NOx formation rates can be much higher than those of thermal NOx. In addition, any nitrogen compounds (e.g., ammonia) introduced into the furnace react in much the same way.

Fuel NOx is much more sensitive to stoichiometry than to thermal conditions. For this reason, traditional thermal treatments, such as flue gas recirculation and water injection, do not effectively reduce NOx emissions from liquid and solid fuel combustion.

NOx emissions can be controlled either during the combustion process or after combustion is complete. Combustion control technologies rely on air or fuel staging techniques to take advantage of the kinetics of NOx formation or introducing inerts that inhibit the formation of NOx during combustion, or both. Post-combustion control technologies rely on introducing reactants in specified temperature regimes that destroy NOx either with or without the use of catalyst to promote the destruction.

Conbustion Control

The simplest of the combustion control technologies is low-excess-air operation–that is, reducing the excess air level to the point of some constraint, such as carbon monoxide formation, flame length, flame stability, and so on. Unfortunately, low-excess-air operation has proven to yield only moderate NOx reductions, if any.

Three technologies that have demonstrated their effectiveness in controlling NOx emissions are off-stoichiometric combustion. low-NOx burners, and combustion temperature reduction. The first two are applicable to all fuels, while the third is applicable only to natural gas and low-nitro-gen-content fuel oils.

Off-stoichiometric, or staged, combustion is achieved by modifying the primary combustion zone stoichiometry – that is, the air/fuel ratio. This may be accomplished operationally or by equipment modifications.

An operational technique known us burners-out-of-service (BOOS) involves terminating the fuel flow to selected burners while leaving the air registers open. The remaining burners operate fuel-rich, thereby limiting oxygen availability, lowering peak flame temperatures, and reducing NOx formation. The unreacted products combine with the air from the terminated-fuel burners to complete burnout before exiting the furnace. Figure 2 illustrates the effectiveness of this technique applied to electric utility boilers. Staged combustion can also be achieved by installing air-only ports, referred to as overfire air (OFA) ports, above the burner zone. redirecting a portion of the air from the burners to the OFA ports. A variation of this concept, lance air, consists of installing air tubes around the periphery of each burner to supply staged air.

BOOS, overfire air, and lance air achieve similar results. These techniques are generally applicable only to larger, multiple-burner, combustion devices.

Low-NOx burners are designed to achieve the staging effect internally. The air and fuel flow fields are partitioned and controlled to achieve the desired air/fuel ratio, which reduces NOx formation and results in complete burnout within the furnace. Low-NOx burners are applicable lo practically all combustion devices with circular burner designs.

Combustion temperature reduction is effective at reducing thermal N0x but not fuel NOx. One way to reduce the combustion temperature is to introduce a diluent. Flue gas recirculation (FGR) is one such technique.

FGR recirculates a portion of the flue gas leaving the combustion process back into the windbox. The recirculated flue gas, usually on the order of 10-20% of the combustion air provides sufficient dilution to decrease NOx emission. Figure 3 correlates the degree of emission reduction with the amount of flue gas recirculated.

On gas-fired units, emissions arc reduced well beyond the levels normally achievable with staged combustion control. In fact, FGR is probably the most effective and least troublesome system for NOx reduction for gas-fired combustors.

An advantage of FGR is that it can be used with most other combustion control methods. Many industrial low-NOx burner systems on the market today incorporate induced FGR. In these designs, a duct is installed between the stack and forced-draft inlet (suction). Flue gas products are recirculated through the forced-draft fan, thus eliminating the need for a separate fan.

Water injection is another method that works on the principle of combustion dilution, very similar to FGR. In addition to dilution, it reduces the combustion air temperature by absorbing the latent heat of vaporization of the water before the combustion air reaches the primary combustion zone.

Few full-scale retrofit or test trials of water injection have been performed. Until recently, water injection has not been used as a primary NOx control method on any combustion devices other than gas turbines because of the efficiency penalty resulting from the absorption of usable energy to evaporate the water. In some cases, water injection represents a viable option to consider when moderate NOx reductions are required to achieve compliance.

Reduction of the air preheat temperature is another viable technique for culling NOx emissions. This lowers peak flame temperatures, thereby reducing NOx formation. The efficiency penalty, however, may be substantial. A rule of thumb is a 1% efficiency loss for each 40º F reduction in preheat. In some cases this may be offset by adding or enlarging the existing economizer.

Post-Combustion Control

There are two technologies for controlling NOx emissions after formation in the combustion process – selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). Both of these processes have seen very limited application in the U.S. for external combustion devices. In selective catalytic reduction, a gas mixture of ammonia with a carrier gas (typically compressed air) is injected upstream of a catalytic reactor operating at temperatures between 450º F and 750º F. NOx control efficiencies are typically in the 70-90% percent range, depending on the type of catalyst, the amount of ammonia injected, the initial NOx level, and the age of the catalyst.

The retrofit of SCR on existing combustion devices can be complex and costly. Apart from the ammonia storage, preparation, and control monitoring requirements, significant modifications to the convective pass ducts may be necessary.

In selective noncatalytic reduction, ammonia- or urea-based reagents are injected into the furnace exit region, where the flue gas is in the range of 1,700-2,000º F. The efficiency of this process depends on the temperature of the gas, the reagent mixing with the gas, the residence time within the temperature window, and the amount of reagent injected relative to the concentration of NOx present. The optimum gas temperature for die reaction is about 1,750°F; deviations from this temperature result in a lower NOx reduction efficiency. Application of SNCR, therefore, must be carefully assessed, as its effectiveness is very dependent on combustion device design and operation.

Technology Selection

As noted previously, selection of applicable NOx control technologies depends on a number of fuel, design, and operational factors. After identifying the applicable control technologies, an economic evaluation must be conducted to rank the technologies according to their cost effectiveness. Management can then select the optimum NOx control technology for the specific unit.

It should be noted that the efficiencies of NOx control technologies are not additive, but rather multiplicative. Efficiencies for existing combustion devices have been demonstrated in terms of percent reduction from baseline emissions level. This must be taken into account when considering combinations of technology.

Consider, for example, the following hypothetical case. Assume a baseline NOx emissions level of 100 ppmv and control technology efficiencies as follows: low-excess-air operation (LEA), 10%; low-NOx burners (LNB), 40%; and flue gas recirculation (FGR). 60%. The three controls are installed in the progressive order of LEA-LNB-FGR.

It should also he noted that combining same-principle technologies (for example, two types of staged combustion) would not provide a further significant NOx reduction than either of the combination, since they operate on the same principle.

It must be emphasized that virtually all of the available control technologies have the potential for adversely affecting the performance and/or operation of the unit. The operation data obtained during the NOx characterization testing, therefore, must be carefully evaluated in light of such potential impacts before selecting applicable control technologies. Operational limitations such as flame envelope, furnace pressure, forced-draft fan capacity, and the like must he identified for each potential technology and their corresponding impacts quantified. (Reference (4), for example, discusses these items, in detail.)

As anyone familiar with combustion processes knows, one technology does not fit all. Careful consideration must he used to select the appropriate, compatible control technology or technologies to ensure compliance at least cost with minimal impact on performance, operation, and capacity.

Books on Mental Health – Education is Key to a Better Tomorrow

Mental health is a major issue in the world today. There are numerous articles and books on mental health that have been written in the aim of assisting people to overcoming these types of health issues. But how effective is just read books about mental health going to be to the reader? That depends on many factors of course.

In the news:

In a recent study, 1 out of every 5 people wrestle with some form of mental illness. Some cases are severe while others go unnoticed. If those stats are true, and this percentage of people do struggle in some way with mental illness, then what can one do to help his mental state? Seeing as the majority of the population is not at risk, then I propose that by simply educating oneself by reading books about mental issues can be of great assistance to the overall population.

I am not at risk:

For example, if I do not consider myself at risk for these health issues, then maybe I can gain some knowledge on the topic and help someone close to me that I know. Even more, I could help another person who I don’t even know just by reading books about mental health so I know “what to say” and “how to say it” when given the opportunity.

Mental health issues are all around us, and like all other things, education is a key fundamental to knowing how to handle these issues. If you or someone you know is having difficulty in this area of life, don’t you owe it to the both of you to educate yourself?

Social Media Marketing Strategies for Internet Home Based Business Owners – Top 5 Dos and Don’ts

Since the advancement of the Internet, there has been a flood of social networking websites like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, blogs,etc. These social media sites allow individuals to interact with one another and build relationships in cyberspace. Since these sites are also used as word of mouth advertising by sharing information to a larger audience, this type of marketing strategy can be a crucial part of building an Internet home based business. These social media marketing strategies may seem simple but if you do not know to follow some specific strategies, there can be some costly effects on your Internet business. Here are the top 5 Do’s and Dont’s when it comes to social media marketing:

1. DO determine your niche market.

Simply, a niche or target market is a group of people with a mutual interest. You can think of it as a subcategory of a larger market. The biggest mistake you can make in social media marketing is to think everyone is your prospect even if you’re selling skin care products. For example, instead of trying to market or connect with anyone who has skin problems, you may just want to focus on those who have adult acne.

Once you determine your niche market, watch for hot new trends. Visit discussion groups, forums, Twitter and other social media websites to determine unfilled needs. Lastly, figure out how you can position yourself to fill that need. If you’ve solved some big problem that you know a lot of other people are challenged with then you start to become an expert in your niche market.

2. DON’T post unwanted ads.

Social media marketing is like the real world, if you just go out and pitch your product or business, people are not going to respond well. When you post blatant ads on social media sites, you may not only be banned but labeled as a “spammer”, which is a person who repeated puts out unsolicited or unwanted information about a business, product, etc. This is a reputation that you don’t want. So, if your true intention is to advertise, it will be apparent and the other participants will catch onto what you’re doing and they’ll discount your information and your posts. Therefore, your goal should be to be seen as an expert in your field, not just to get traffic to your site.

3. DON’T disrespect the opinions of others.

People are allowed to express their opinions at social media sites and you don’t have to agree with them, but you must respect them. If someone posts something that you don’t agree with, or that’s incorrect, feel free to post, but don’t point the finger and criticize the person that you’re connecting with or that you don’t agree with. Just focus on helping them.

4. DO give value first.

The key to social media marketing is to add value. When you add value through social media marketing, it means to offer free information and educational content that solves an initial problem for your prospect. You can give away something of value like a free report, set of training videos or weekly newsletters,etc. Once this is achieved this allows you to effortlessly sell massive quantities of any product or service in any industry. Prospects and customers flock to those who demonstrate that they are knowledgeable about a subject and share it with others through free valuable information.

5. DO build relationships.

Social media marketing is about connecting with people and being real. This personal interaction can instill a feeling of loyalty into followers and potential customers. From an Internet Home Based Business perspective, the marketers that will benefit the most from this type of social media marketing approach are the ones who offer the most help and connect on an emotional level. Remember this is about helping others find solutions; it’s not about answering their question to simply pitch them your business.

Finally, because social media marketing attracts so much continual attention from Internet users, this has become a powerful venue for an Internet home-based business owners to create interest and traffic. Also, if you are involved with people on an emotional level, they will be much more likely to refer your business and talk positively about your product. In addition, these social media efforts, if monitored carefully with a little bit of patience and skillful planning, can deliver profitable results for any internet business.

Chicago Council on Global Affairs Holds Public Meeting for Mexican Community

The Mexican American Task Force of The Chicago Council of Global Affairs, released the Task Force’s report: A Shared Future: The Economic Engagement of Greater Chicago and Its Mexican Community.

Members are Clare Munana of Ancora Associates, Douglas Doetsch of Mayer Brown Rowe and Maw, Alajandro Silva of The Evans Food Group, Allert Brown-Gort and Sylvia Puente from The University of Notre Dame. Presiding was Marshall Bouton, President of the Chicago Council of Global Affairs. His Excellency Carlos Sada, Consul General of Mexico and J. D. Bindenagel of DePaul University were in attendance.

With grace and polish Mr. Bouton introduced the members of the Force to a receptive audience held Monday evening at the Mexican Museum of Fine Arts in Chicago. The nature of the meeting was to articulate the results of the report to the public and to acquire feedback from the community.

The report focused on Education, Finance, Social Services, Civic Responsibilities, and Labor. Currently there are over 1,300,000 members of the Mexican Community in the Chicago Metropolitan area. The protocol of the event was for each member of the Task Force to address their respective area of expertise to the audience. After they made their report provision was made with floor space and a microphone for the audience to address questions and concerns to the Force. Each member did and outstanding job of articulating their area of expertise with facts and statistics to support their decisions. Because of their thoroughness and vision the Task Force’s report proved to be an outstanding success, which was echoed by the audience.

In the course of the evening the Force articulated a cogent and intelligent plan that highlight the essential needs of both the Mexican and Greater Chicago Communities. What was excellent about this event was that for the first time a civic body that had the vision, resources, and expertise to implement a plan on such a massive scale did so and brought it to the community. Further, the community reciprocated with additional suggestions and ovations of support for the report and the Task Force.

Stephen F. Condren – Artist

High Cut-off Is Not The Only Concern To Study In DU

It is a rush time for the admission in the Delhi University and there is an equal rush to hit the high cut off marks and the increasing number of students with the every passing year. Once the student gets over with the struggle of getting into a college another road of hurdles begins. A look out for a affordable, secure and hustle free accommodation becomes another challenge for the students to tackle. It is indeed an irony that one of the country’s most prestigious and favoured institution is starved of hostel facilities. As a whole, Delhi University is the conclave of 82 colleges with various types of courses at under graduate and post graduate levels but it has only 14 hostels available for PG and less than 10 for UG students, with a maximum of 250 head count capacity. It clearly states the pathetic situation of students coming for the admission from various corners of the country. It is a fact that around 50 per cent of the students are from out side Delhi.

Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College(ARSD) has more than 800 seats for BA (Pass) course but there is not even a single accommodation available. Then why is ARSD still a favorite college for students? According to the Principal of the college Kavita Bhatia, it is simply because paying guest facilities are available at nearby locality like Satya Niketan, Moti Bagh, Nanakpura. But at the same time there is an availability of paying guest facility but at unusual high cost. It varies anywhere between Rs 3500- 4500 for a room excluding water and electricity. For food, students have to pay around 2000 rupees additional per month. The students become vulnerable as they prefer to stay near to college thus are forced to pay high rents, which become a burden for middle class families to bear.

“It is a grave cause of concern for us. I am a small businessman. But good education for my child is my prime target as there are no good colleges in my town,” Hukumchand accompanying his son Piyush from Purnia, Bihar said. Private accommodations are generally not very safe from the security point of view, especially for girls. Many incidents of molestation and eve-teasing have come in light according to the police authorities of adjoining areas of colleges. “We feel unsafe as we are away from our home town and family. Generally we return at our room before 7 pm,” said Jhanvi Singh who stays at Hudson Lane. Mukhrajee Nagar, Hudson Lane and Nehru Vihar are much favoured locations for students studying in North Campus. Though, some landlords have made special arrangements for girls but one can’t fully rely on them. Living conditions do not support the cordial atmosphere required for studies.

In south Delhi, Lady Sri Ram is the only women college, that has hostel facility for UG course, but strictly on the basis of the merit. And if one does not fall in the merit list then the person is out of the accommodation list as well, this is again because the hostel facility is not directly proportionate to the number of students enrolled with the college. Venkateswara college is adding a hostel this time and it is expected to be functional by August 2007. “The problem is multi-dimensional. Along with administrative barriers, colleges have to face financial shortages or funding for this and unavailability of land is another important issue,” said Jogesh Chadha, Deputy Dean of Students Welfare. According to the college principals money is indeed the prime concern for the shortage of accommodation. “Finance is the major problem and there is always scarcity of that. It is not just hostel facility which we lack but unavailability of gym, conference hall and library buildings is also what is equally essential,” said Ramesh Sharma, Principal of Moti Lal Nehru college.

The process of getting a hostel passed is also hectic. Proposal for building a hostel is to be placed before staff council. After getting it passed from here, it is put up at the governing body and later building committee addresses it. Then the proposed map is sent to Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) and Delhi government.

Finally the proposal reaches University Grants Commission (UGC) for grants. It is a very long procedure and takes too of much time and effort as Ramesh Sharma accepted, “Filing process is too hectic and long to get the building cleared for construction.” Bhim Sen Singh, Principal of Kirori Mal College reiterated this view. ” We have sent the map for a hostel to MCD but we are still awaiting for the clearance. Without that we can’t start the construction which was very necessary for us.”ARSD college has ample space and money to provide a ‘decent’ hostel. “We don’t have problem of funding for hostel but MCD is producing hurdles as the civic body has to pass the outlay plan for any building to be constructed,” said Kavita Bhatia, Principal, ARSD college. Civic institutions like MCD and CPWD make thing worst by demanding various clearances. Some times colleges have to pay taxes at commercial rates to these civic bodies.

UGC, the prime governing body for central universities, the allocation of funds particularly for hostels is facing a shortage. “The hostels are on our priority list, especially for women. We are short of money but trying our best to overcome this genuine necessity. The hostels could be made with lesser number of rooms. At present, we give 25 lakh rupees for a hostel but we will increase it up to 2 crore rupees,” said Sukhdeo Thorat, chairman, UGC. Cases are different for different colleges because they are being governed by different administrative setups and structures. Take the case of Moti Lal Nehru college which gets 95 per cent of its funding from UGC and rest from Delhi government. Thus, it has to accommodate these two different institutions at different levels. Like if the college gets grants from UGC even then the Delhi government may produce any unwanted objection leaving the project in jeopardy. Colleges are not allowed to take fundings from outside or by innovating other sources for necessary money which could have facilitated the problem. But college like Venkateswara which is run by rich trusts, may not face similar problem.

As the accommodation problem is not new and the solution too appears to be far from reach, but it should be on the priority list not only for colleges and UGC but also for concerned civic authorities. Being the national capital and having four central universities in its fold, Delhi is bound to attract large number of students in the coming years and DU is going to be the centre of attraction for them. Therefore, solving it sooner than later would be a good move in the way to provide basic facility for the students for their bright future.

Where to Buy Backpacks

Backpacks can be bought from various places, ranging from street stores to factory outlets and from malls to designer showrooms and online stores. There are different types of backpacks before buying a backpack, you must be clear about the kind of backpack you want to buy.

The best place to buy cheap backpacks would be flea markets, garage sales, discount stores or small shops. Several online stores also sell cheap backpacks but most of these are replicas and fakes. It is difficult to judge the quality of cheap backpacks offered by online stores.

Branded backpacks are manufactured by large companies, both domestic and foreign. These companies use superior quality material and provide guarantee to the consumer for their goods. The best place to buy these backpacks would be from factory outlets, discount stores or malls. These companies often organize periodic end of season sales, or clearance sales. This would be the best time and place to buy the backpacks at a discount. Branded backpacks may also be ordered online.

Designer backpacks are designed by fashion designers and are the most expensive among the three, due to their uniqueness and fashion statements. The best place to buy these would be an outlet of the designer or a high end stores stocking with these kinds of backpacks. One must remember to check for authenticity while making a purchase, as there are a large number of fakes in the markets. These backpacks can also be ordered online.

There are different ways and places for buying different kinds of backpacks. One can find the right place, once one is very clear about the purpose for which the backpack is being purchased and the kind of backpack that will suit the purpose.

Male Skin Products For Wrinkles – 5 Tips You Must Know to Successfully Prevent Wrinkles

Let’s face it, finding the best male skin products for wrinkles can be quite difficult to find, especially if you have no clue what to look for. This article will give you 5 great tips for finding the most effective male skin products for wrinkles so you do not have to rely on trial-and-error to find it.

TIP #1. The best male skin products for wrinkles are made with all-natural and organic ingredients.

Don’t waste your time with products that are not made with all natural ingredients. If they are not all-natural, then they most likely contain harmful synthetic ingredients like mineral oils which make your skin even worse (especially when you stop using them). All-natural ingredients provide multiple health-giving benefits for your skin and they are accepted very well since they are so similar to your own oils and moisturizers.

TIP #2. Don’t waste your time looking for male skin products for wrinkles at your local drugstore or department store.

These places are slowly losing more and more customers because people are finally realizing that the shelves are loaded with USELESS creams and lotions. They choose which items to put on the shelves based on popularity as oppose to effectiveness, and they also pick the ones that they can get for the lowest price.

TIP #3. Don’t let price be the number one deciding factor as to which treatments you purchase.

I know that price is important. But when it comes to skincare, only purchasing the cheapest products available will prevent you from finding effective treatments. I’m not saying that you should spends hundreds of dollars of skincare creams and lotions. But creams and lotions that are actually effective (ones with high concentrations of powerful ingredients) usually cost around $30-$50.

TIP #4. Anti-aging products that protect the skin from damaging free radicals dramatically help prolong the aging process.

Free radical damage is one of the leading causes of wrinkles and other unwanted aging signs, and even cancer. Things like UV radiation and pollution create these unstable molecules in your skin. Male skin products for wrinkles that are made with potent and deeply-penetrating antioxidants defend the skin against free radicals to keep it healthy and youthful.

TIP #5. The best male skin products for wrinkles will stimulate higher levels of collagen and elastin production.

Without doing this, it’s almost impossible to keep the skin wrinkle-free. These are the proteins that keep your skin elastic, tight, and firm. But as you get older, your body is not able to produce as much of these proteins as it use to. Ingredients like CynergyTK(TM) can actually give your skin the boost it needs in order to keep producing high amounts of these proteins so it can stay youthful and smooth.

Visit Shopping Resources For Complete Shopping Information

The trend of buying online through Internet is catching up. Many customers prefer online purchasing and there are several reasons for this kind of shift in the buying patterns. Firstly, there are innumerable shopping resources that provide information on shopping. These sources have a lot of information like the latest discounts and offers, how to save money while buying online, how to find lowest prices, how to compare prices, gifting ideas, easy guide to search for coupon deals, and so on. These sites have a lot of valuable information for various categories of products and services. Customers can expect all the information under one roof. It is possible to compare rates online to help you choose the best product. Here is a list of the categories of products and services.

Product Categories At Shopping Resources

*Agricultural equipments

*Antiques and collectibles


*Banking and finance

*Bargains and discounts

*Clothes and accessories

*Comparison online shopping


*Self storage

*Sports products and much more.

Benefits Of Buying Online

There are several benefits of buying products and services online. We share some of the advantages of purchasing online.

Better Prices – This is one of the biggest advantages of purchasing online, you tend to get better prices. Rather, you can buy stuff at discounted rates. This is possible because when a merchant sells a product or service online through shopping resources, they sell the products directly to the customers. There are no other costs involved like the distributor or retailer commission, marketing and advertising expenses, and so on. Thus, this benefit can be passed on to the customers. The merchant can sell the products at a price that is lower than the original printed price. The savings in other areas of selling are passed on to the consumers.

Several Brands Under One Roof – This alternative method of shopping gives a wide choice. You can select from a wide range of products or services from different brands. It offers convenience since everything is available at one destination. There is no need to go hunting for a specific brand or product. Indeed, shopping resources have a lot in store for the customer.

Comparison Shopping – It also allows you to compare prices of different products and services at the click of a button. This kind of comparison helps in choosing a product that suits your requirement. Moreover, the time spent in comparing prices is minimal.

Product Reviews – What’s more? This kind of online buying gives an opportunity to read product reviews by the existing users as well as experts. It aids in choosing the right product after evaluating its value. Shopping resources are a good source of information for they do not have any sub standard products on their website. If at all they receive a complaint from their customers about a particular product or service, they immediately act on the complaint by taking the product out of their site. They may also take other measures like giving negative feedback about the product if they receive a complaint from the customer. They may even stop promoting the product if the customer’s complaint is justified.